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Gemstones cut in long narrow rectangle bordered by four step-cut facets.


The name of the first thermosetting resin patented in 1910 by Dr. Leo Baekeland.

Balas Ruby

Spinel ruby. Misnomer for spinel with a colour close to ruby. 


An ornament worn around the wrist, with little or no flexibility. Some are hinged to allow the wearer easy removal, others known as slave bangles are a continuous rigid band which must be forced on and off manually.

Baroque Pearl

Irregularly shaped pearl. 


Relief or projection from surface is low.

Base metal

Any non-precious metal that is used in jewellery is often referred to as base metal.


Visual effect that can be achieved by arranging solid gold grains to create a border.

Berlin Iron

During the Napoleonic War , gold jewellery donated to the war effort was exchanged for cast iron pieces from the Berlin Iron. Most was produced between 1812-1815.


A setting that encircles another material (i.e. gemstone) holding it in place.


Jewellery made of gold and enamels.


Article of woman’s attire in sixteenth century consisting of a row of stones or pearls which bordered a ‘gable’ hoods. 

Blister pearl

Uneven pearl with a raw underside which is usually hidden by the setting. 


An ornamental hairpin popular in the Renaissance. Usually made of gold or silver set with gems.

Bolt ring

A style of clasp often seen on necklaces and bracelets. 


A piece of jewellery that is suspended from another piece of jewellery.  


Thin sheet of metal applied to coins, medals, jewellery. 


A small charm. 

Brilliant cut

A method of gem cutting where the upper part of the stone is cut into as many as 33 facets and the lower part in 25.


 Elongated stone multi-faceted cuts on all sides.


A decorative piece of jewellery that is fastened to clothing with a hinged pin or catch. 


A gemstone which is cut with a rounded non-faceted top and a fully faceted pavilion.


Golden hollow convex amulet. Often of Etruscan or Irish Bronze age origin. 

Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also known in history as Byzantium or even the East Roman Empire was founded by Constantine I circa 330AD. The name Byzantine is said to have derived from the original name of the capital city Byzantium which was renamed Constantinople. Over the centuries this empire included a vast land mass which at times included modern day Italy, Greece, the Balkans, Turkey and Northern Africa. Although influenced by the traditions of the territories encompassed within the kingdom, the conversion of Emperor Constantine I to Christianity made any other form of worship void. 

Spanning from 330AD to 1453AD, at the height of its power Byzantium is said to have housed the richest, most lavish and most important christian city in the world, its capital Constantinople. 

Jewellery from this era is often found in high carat yellow gold and silver, granulation and wirework in relief are used as decoration, whilst christian motifs such as crosses, saints and other heavenly symbols are staples in the jewels found from this era.